タグ別アーカイブ: Historical

Essential Oils: Historical Significance, Chemical Composition and Medicinal Uses and Benefits

Essential Oils: Historical Significance, Chemical Composition and Medicinal Uses and Benefits

Essential Oils: Historical Significance, Chemical Composition and Medicinal Uses and Benefits (Chemistry Research and Applications) by Miranda Peters
2016 | ISBN: 1634843517 | English | 201 pages | PDF | 10 MB

The use of essential oils by civilisations constitutes a common practice since antiquity. In earlier times, China, India and the Middle East used herbs and oils in cooking, cosmetics, medicine and in religious rituals. These substances come from a secondary metabolism of plants and are associated with several functions necessary for their survival, such as the defense against microorganisms, predators and attraction of pollinators. Essential oils are composed of a complex mixture of biologically active substances, lipophilic and volatile, and in most cases derivatives of terpene compounds and in a lower occurrence – phenylpropaids. They have been long recognised for their medicinal uses: antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, insecticidal and their antioxidant properties. The increased interest in alternative natural substances is driving the research community to find new uses and applications of these substances. This book provides research on the historical significance, chemical composition and medicinal uses and benefits of essential oils. Some of the topics discussed include extraction methods of essential oils; an overview of the most relevant essential oil changes regarding plant phelogy and plant development; the antibacterial properties of some essential oils; essential oils applications in agriculture; and the use of essential oils as additives in broiler diets.

The Economic War Against Cuba: A Historical and Legal Perspective on the U.S. Blockade (repost)

The Economic War Against Cuba: A Historical and Legal Perspective on the U.S. Blockade (repost)

The Economic War Against Cuba: A Historical and Legal Perspective on the U.S. Blockade by Salim Lamrani
English | 2013 | ISBN: 1583673407 , 1583673415 | 144 pages | PDF | 1 MB

It is impossible to fully understand Cuba today without also understanding the economic sanctions levied against it by the United States. For over fifty years, these sanctions have been upheld by every presidential administration, and at times intensified by individual presidents and acts of Congress.

They are a key part of the U.S. government’s ongoing campaign to undermine the Cuban Revolution, and stand in egregious violation of international law. Most importantly, the sanctions are cruelly designed for their harmful impact on the Cuban people. In this concise and sober account, Salim Lamrani explains everything you need to know about U.S. economic sanctions against Cuba: their origins, their provisions, how they contravene international law, and how they affect the lives of Cubans. He examines the U.S. government’s own official documents to expose what is hiding in plain sight: an indefensible, vicious, and wasteful blockade that has been roundly condemned by citizens around the world.

Time-Space Compression: Historical Geographies (Repost)

Barney Warf, “Time-Space Compression: Historical Geographies”
English | ISBN: 0415418038, 0203938054 | 2008 | 272 pages | PDF | 2,6 MB

If geography is the study of how human beings are stretched over the earth’s surface, a vital part of that process is how we know and feel about space and time. Although space and time appear as “natural” and outside of society, they are in fact social constructions; every society develops different ways of measuring, organizing, and perceiving them. Given steady increases in the volume and velocity of social transactions over space, time and space have steadily “shrunk” via the process of time-space compression. By changing the time-space prisms of daily life – how people use their times and spaces, the opportunities and constraints they face, the meanings they attach to them – time-space compression is simultaneously cultural, social, political, and psychological in nature.

This book explores how various social institutions and technologies historically generated enormous improvements in transportation and communications that produced transformative reductions in the time and cost of interactions among places, creating ever-changing geographies of centrality and peripherality. Warf invokes a global perspective on early modern, late modern, and postmodern capitalism. He makes use of data concerning travel times at various historical junctures, maps of distances between places at different historical moments, anecdotal analyses based on published accounts of people’s sense of place, examinations of cultural forms that represented space (e.g., paintings), and quotes about the culture of speed.

Warf shows how time-space compression varies under different historical and geographical conditions, indicating that it is not one, single, homogenous process but a complex, contingent, and contested one. This book will be useful book for those studying and researching Geography, History, Sociology, and Political Science, as well as Anthropology, and Philosophy.

Post-Keynesian Essays from Down Under Volume I: Essays on Keynes, Harrod and Kalecki: Theory and Policy in an Historical Contex

Post-Keynesian Essays from Down Under Volume I: Essays on Keynes, Harrod and Kalecki: Theory and Policy in an Historical Context by G. Harcourt and Peter Kriesler
English | 2016 | ISBN: 1137475374, 1349569488 | 366 pages | PDF | 4,6 MB

In the first volume of Post-Keynesian Essays from Down Under, Halevi, Harcourt, Kriesler and Neville bring together a collection of their most influential papers on Keynes, Harrod and Kalecki.